4. Stories and research on the impact of 1:1 laptop initiatives on student academic achievement, particularly standardized tests. Also stories and research on the impact of 1:1 laptop initiatives on student engagement, absences, discipline issues, dropout rates, etc (positive outcomes you can find that are attributable to these initiatives).

“1 to 1 learning provides a unique opportunity to broaden the dimensions by which student success is measured. - problem solving, critical thinking, visual and information literacy, communication skills, teamwork, and the quality of students’ multimedia products. Multiple assessments to measure academic achievement, 21st century skills, and engagement provide new insights into the quality and intensity of student learning.” (Metiri Group, pg.3)

Pleasanton Unified School District, California
"Harvest Park Middle School, located in Pleasanton Unified School District, California, established its laptop immersion program in 2001. Launched the first year with just 60 sixth-grade students, the program increased to include 259 in 2003, representing nearly 25 percent of the total enrollment of 1085 in grades 6, 7, and 8, and has since grown slightly each year. This district is one of the few in the country to conduct a rigorous study on the impact of the 1 to 1 learning experience on student achievement, in comparison with a matched group in the same school. Students involved in the 1 to 1 learning program are representative of the total school population. Analyses of outcome measures collected after participation in the laptop program indicate that students who participated in the program earned significantly higher test scores and grades for writing, English–language arts, mathematics, and overall Grade Point Averages (GPAs). The teachers in the laptop program focused student use on productivity tools, presentation tools, probes, data analysis tools, and problem solving as they integrated technology across the curriculum." (Metiri Group, pg.4)

The School at Columbia in Manhattan
Finds the visual aspects of the 1 to 1 environment, while critical at all levels, especially important for its younger students. Remarking that all children are born storytellers, teachers at the school watched as their “preliterate” first-graders used iPhoto, iTunes, and iMovie to tell rich and compelling stories as they processed interviews in an immigration project. Impressed by the sophistication of their students’ multimedia stories, teachers remarked on how Apple 1 to 1 Learning opens doors through visual learning, not only to students not yet expert in writing, but also to bilingual and dyslexic students. Students used visuals, music, and inventive thinking to convey stories of diversity, challenge, accomplishment, and reflection in the immigration project. The result? Increased communication, improved literacy skills, and deeper appreciation of diversity, along with enhanced learning in the social sciences." (Metiri Group, pg.5)

Irving Elementary School, Pennsylvania
"The McAulife Heights program at Irving Elementary School brings Apple 1 to 1 Learning to high-need students in Altoona, Pennsylvania. The iBook computers provided to students across grade levels have resulted in collaboration across grades, with older students mentoring younger students. At one time, Irving Elementary posted the lowest achievement scores in the city. Since the inception of the 1 to 1 program, Irving Elementary has received the Pennsylvania Governor’s School of Excellence award for improved test scores" (Metiri Group, pg.6).

Manatee County School District, Florida
"Researchers also measure engagement through readily accessible data such as attendance and behavior referrals. At Manatee County Public Schools in Bradenton, Florida, where nearly 6000 students and teachers participate in Apple 1 to 1 Learning with individual iBook computers, the level of student engagement has skyrocketed while absences have declined since the initiative began in 2003. Two-thirds of students report they watch less television and spend more time doing homework. Ongoing “parent night” gatherings keep families and the community informed of the progress of the 1 to 1 initiative" (Metiri Group, p.9).

School Administrative District #4, Maine
"An analysis of the Apple 1 to 1 Learning initiative in School Administrative District #4 in rural Maine showed that among its middle school children, attendance already relatively high, increased by an additional 7.7 percent, as the district moved from a 3 to 1 to a 1 to 1 student-to-computer ratio. During the same time period, the number of behavior letters sent home decreased by 54 percent. The true measure of this success came when the first students in the program graduated from high school in 2003, setting a new record for the percentage going on to college" (Metiri Group, p.9).

Beginning in 2000, then Governor Angus King decided to be unique and bring his state to the forefront of education by bringing 1:1 laptops to all school in Maine, specifically middle school students.
  • Initial Results: Attendance is up, discipline problems (one school stated detentions slid from twenty-eight to three among students who had laptops, suspensions dropped from five to zero, and 91 percent of the students with laptops improved their grades in at least one academic area).
  • Student responses: "I have never handed all of my homework in because I always lose stuff." "Now I hand everything in because it is right there on my laptop." "I spent a lot more time working on my assignments because it was a lot more interesting." "I made honor roll for the first time!"
  • "The key word is engagement plus teacher know-how (Curtis, 2003, p.1).
  • http://www.apple.com/education/teachers-professors/mobile-learning.html
  • Video on the top left hand side of the page on Student Perspectives of 1:1 laptops (discusses parents, students, and a few teachers perspectives)
  • http://www.apple.com/education/teachers-professors/profiles.html
  • Teachers, Professors, Students, etc share their stories and thoughts about 1:1 through various videos
Especially see:
  • 1 to 1 Learning - Student Perspective
  • Our Youngest Learners Embrace Apple
  • Teachers and Professors
  • California's First 1 to 1 Learning Program
See Also: Leaders and Administrators Profiles for more videos that directly show impact on learning, cost, funding, Apple, etc.

Effectiveness of information technology in education
"This article highlights some of the difficulties that have led to assaults on integrating information technology into the schools. It acknowledges the scarcity of solid evidence to support claims that inserting information technology into education does improve learning. Some currently existing roadblocks to integration are reported. The article, however, points out that positive examples do exist and highlights one of the major research articles in this collection authored by the guest editors,Gerald Knezek and Rhonda Christensen" (p. 1)
Johnson, D. L., & Maddux, C. D. (2007, Fall). Introduction: Effectiveness of information technology in education. Computers in the Schools, 24(3-4), 1-6. Retrieved on March 25, 2009 from http://cits.haworthpress.com/.

Laptop initiatives: How are they working?
Hendricks, P.
Initial evaluations of laptop programs indicate that teachers, students, administrators, and parents perceive that one-to-one computing access is beneficial to education. However, perceptions are not a solid basis for spending millions of dollars on technology equipment. Three evaluation studies matched laptop students with similar nonlaptop peers; the research showed a positive correlation between participation in laptop programs and increased academic achievement. Since students and some teachers volunteered for these programs, there is no scientific way to determine if the laptop, teachers, or participation in a new program accounted for the added value.
Hendricks, P. (N/A). Laptop initiatives: How are they working? Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://www.temple.edu/martec/networks/laptop.html

Learning With Technology: The Impact of Laptop Use on Student Achievement
Cengiz Gulek, J. & Demirtas, H
Abstract: Rapid technological advances in the last decade have sparked educational practitioners’ interest in utilizing laptops as an instructional tool to improve student learning. There is substantial evidence that using technology as an instructional tool enhances student learning and educational outcomes. Past research suggests that compared to their non-laptop counterparts, students in classrooms that provide all students with their own laptops spend more time involved in collaborative work, participate in more project-based instruction, produce writing of higher quality and greater length, gain increased access to information, improve research analysis skills, and spend more time doing homework on computers. Research has also shown that these students direct their own learning, report a greater reliance on active learning strategies, readily engage in problem solving and critical thinking, and consistently show deeper and more flexible uses of technology than students without individual laptops. The study presented here examined the impact of participation in a laptop program on student achievement. A total of 259 middle school students were followed via cohorts. The data collection measures included students’ overall cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), end-of-course grades, writing test scores, and state-mandated norm- and criterion-referenced standardized test scores. The baseline data for all measures showed that there was no statistically significant difference in English language arts, mathematics, writing, and overall grade point average achievement between laptop and non-laptop students prior to enrollment in the program. However, laptop students showed significantly higher achievement in nearly all measures after one year in the program. Cross-sectional analyses in Year 2 and Year 3 concurred with the results from the Year 1. Longitudinal analysis also proved to be an independent verification of the substantial impact of laptop use on student learning outcomes.ติวเตอร์
Cengiz Gulek, J. & Demirtas, H. (2005, January). "Learning with technology: The impact of laptop use on student achievement." The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment(3) 2).
Retrieved on March 25, 2009 from http://www.jtla.org

The impact of Maine's one-to-one laptop program on middle school teachers and students: Phase one summary evidence research report #1
In summary, the evidence collected for this evaluation indicates that a large majority of Maine’s middle schools have successfully implemented the one-to-one laptop program, and there is already substantial self-reported evidence that student learning has increased and improved. Additional research needs to be conducted in the coming years to document and understand the long-term impacts of the laptop initiative on teachers and teaching, students and learning, and on schools.
  • "More than 4 out of 5 teachers surveyed reported that students are more engaged in their learning, more actively involved in their own learning, and produce better quality work" (Silvernail & Lane, 2004, p. ii).
  • "Over 70% reported that having laptops helped them to more effectively meet their curriculum goals, and individualize their curriculum to meet particular student needs." (Silvernail & Lane, 2004, p. 15).
  • "Additionally, more than 3 out of 4 teachers surveyed indicated that the laptops helped them better meet the Learning Results" (Silvernail & Lane, 2004, p. 16).
  • "As a result of the growing usage levels, there have been many positive impacts from this initial implementation of the laptop program. Teachers and students alike report improvements in the quality of students’ work, the students learn more, and that students increase their understanding of what they are learning. Students of all types are more motivated to learn, and more engaged in the learning process. And interaction about learning and content between teachers and students, and students with other students has increased substantially" (Silvernail & Lane, 2004, p. 33)
Silvernail, D. L., & Lane, D. M. M. (2004, February). The impact of Maine's one-to-one laptop program on middle school teachers and students: Phase one summary evidence research report #1: University of Southern Maine Office. Retrieved on March 25, 2009 from http://www.state.me.us/mlti/articles/research/MLTIPhaseOneEvaluationReport2004.pdf.

1:1 Learning: A review and analysis by the Metiri group (n.d.). Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://www.apple.com/au/education/k12/onetoone/

Curtis, D. (2003, May 13). A computer for every lap: The Maine learning technology initiative. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://www.edutopia.org/computer-every-lap